cuatro mg/d versus KCl, 110±2.7 mg/d; P<0.001) ( Table 1 ). K-cit increased the mean overall urinary pH (K-cit, 7.51±0.04 versus KCl, 6.71±0.05; P<0.001). K-cit reduced mean overall urinary NH4 (K-cit, 0.25±0.01 mmol/d versus KCl, 0.41±0.01 mmol/d; P<0.001). K-cit increased the mean overall urinary sulfate (K-cit, 1.08±0.02 mEq/d versus KCl, 0.86±0.02 mEq/d; P<0.001). Each of these changes was present at each time point. Overall mean urinary uric acid excretion did not differ (K-cit, 1.6±0.1 mg/d versus KCl, 2.0±0.2 mg/d; P=NS).
Dining table step 1.
Urinary citrate, pH and sulfate were increased while NH4, chloride, sodium and K were the same or decreased with K-cit compared to KCl
Beliefs is conveyed as the imply±SEM. Pee was built-up to possess 24 hour within six, 12, and you may 18 wk to choose solute levels because the demonstrated on the To the stage Tips.
K-cit resulted in a slightly lower overall mean urinary sodium (K-cit, 2.16±0.03 mmol/d versus KCl, 2.36±0.04; P<0.001), which was significant at 6 and 18 weeks but not at 12 weeks ( Table 1 ). K-cit resulted in a slightly but significantly lower mean overall urinary K (K-cit, 4.8±0.04 mmol/d versus KCl, 5.3±0.08 mmol/d; P<0.001) that was significant at each time period. As expected, the rats receiving K-cit excreted less chloride than the rats receiving KCl (K-cit, 2.2±0.07 mEq/d versus KCl, 6.4±0.15 mEq/d; P<0.001), which was significant at each 6-week time period. K-cit did not alter the overall mean urine volume (K-cit, 47.3±1.6 ml/d versus KCl, 53.0±2.7 ml/d; P=NS) or the overall mean urinary creatinine (K-cit, ±0.17 mg/d versus KCl, ±0.22 mg/d; P=NS).
K-cit led to a significant increase in the urinary supersaturation with respect to both CaP (K-cit, 8.5±0.6 versus KCl, 4.9±0.2; P<0.001) and CaOx (K-cit, 9.8±0.5 versus KCl, 5.5±0.2; P<0.001) and a reduction of supersaturation with respect to uric acid (K-cit, 0.003±0.0005 versus KCl, 0.022±0.003; P<0.001) ( Figure 2 ). Each of these differences was significant at each time period.
Urinary supersaturation (SS) of CaP and CaOx were increased and uric acid SS was decreased with K-cit. Urine was collected for 24 hours at 6, 12, and 18 weeks to determine solute levels that were used to calculate relative supersaturation as described in the Concise Methods. Values for relative supersaturation are mean±SEM and are unitless. *K-cit different from KCl, same time period, P<0.05.
Solution amounts of calcium and you will PTH don’t disagree between K-cit–given and you may KCl-given rats, whenever you are gel phosphate accounts was indeed ;fed mice ( Profile step three ).
K-cit decreased serum phosphate levels but did not change serum Ca or PTH. At the conclusion of the 18-week study, these levels were determined as described in the Concise Methods. Values are mean±SEM. *K-cit different from KCl, same time period, P<0.05.
K-cit didn’t replace the number of rocks shaped or the total amount out-of calcification about kidneys ( Figure 4 ). All the rats designed stones regarding similar dimensions and you will thickness and had comparable quantities of calcification when you look at the renal and you may servizio incontri 420 event program.
Renal brick formation and calcification wasn’t other for the rats given KCl otherwise K-cit. At the conclusion of the new 18-times study, the extent from renal rocks and you will calcification is determined by around three perceiver since the explained throughout the Concise Steps. The total amount away from kidney calcification was also computed because the discussed regarding the To the level Steps. (A) Affiliate radiographs from kidneys from mice receiving KCl otherwise K-cit. Calcification score with the photo revealed are offered just like the a reference. (B) Quantitation away from brick creation and you will calcification throughout mice receiving KCl otherwise K-cit. Values try suggest±SEM.
Visible stones was dissected out-of associate kidneys away from each other teams and you may reviewed to own crystal morphology. Brand new diffraction models for all analyzed trials was congruent towards the diffraction pattern from biologic apatite, a cover brick ( Shape 5 , top). With accessibility indication electron microscopy (TEM), most of the kidney stone crystals had a rod- otherwise needle-eg shape, similar to the morphology of biologic apatite crystals ( Profile 5 , bottom) and you can instead of the newest octahedral amazingly morphology off CaOx.