Suggestions is inspired by Robert Hoberman (individual interaction). It appears to be generally member of your own Jewish languages from a great many other towns from the part also, and additionally Aqra and you can Rawanduz.
However, in this dialect discover an incredibly uncommon change off h in order to h on 3rd individual https://datingranking.net/tr/hookupdate-inceleme/ one possessive suffixes: resIh ‘his head’
Azerbaijan (Azer): What of Jews off Iranian Azerbaijan, in addition to communities into the Urmi, Salmas, Basqale, Mahabad, and you may Yuksekova. Information is of Garbell (1965).
Halabja (Hala): The words of the Jews out-of Halabja into the Iran-Iraq border. This is extremely close to the Jewish dialects of most other metropolitan areas of part, together with Saqqiz, Suleimaniya, Sanandaj, Baneh, and you may Panjwin. Information arises from my notes.
We shall contrast these types of dialects regarding twenty-five phonological, morphological, morpho-lexical, and lexical requirements. After the Hetzron (1976, 98), you will find chosen simply innovations as requirements having classification. We have selected a good disproportionate level of morphological criteria, therefore should let them have special weight, once more following Hetzron, but almost every other common designs would-be considered as really.
Notice also the more difficult maintenance plus insertion out of when you look at the Koy Sanjaq claimed by Hoberman (1985)
Once we compare the dialects out-of NENA we shall try to influence the brand new the total amount that the dialects show a distinct trend hence is different from Turoyo and Mandaic. Meanwhile, we shall find packages of isoglosses within this NENA.
(1) Stress can be penultimate in most the newest NA languages, as well as Turoyo and Mandaic however on the three easternmost Jewish languages, Jewish Azerbaijani, Koy Sanjaq, and you can Halabja, which will stress the very last syllable. Such dialects take a look, similar to this, as in additional (Garbell 1965), to show an unusually strong influence away from Kurdish.
(2) Most of the NENA languages keeps matched h and you can x. In Hertevin the result is h, and you will everywhere otherwise it is x: Hertevin haye ‘life’ (Jastrow 1988, 189) and you may dmehli ‘I slept’ (Jastrow 1988, 18), Tkhuma xa:[Theta]a good ‘new’, Jilu ptIxli ‘I opened’ (Fox 1992, 45), and you may +damxotu ‘you sleep’ (Fox 1992, 55).(4)
Both Turoyo and you can Mandaic maintain independent h and x. Some NENA languages have reintroduced h as the a borrowing out of Kurdish or Arabic or away from Ancient Syriac otherwise Hebrew.(5) But not, the latest passed on words constantly reveals x. Such as for example, inside the Tisqopa you’ll find lent Arabic terminology, such sahabi ‘friend’, having h, however, handed down terms such as for instance laxma ‘bread’ consistently inform you x. (6)
(3) All of the NENA languages but Hertevin and you can Zakho have forfeit very days out of handed down. Instance, from inside the Aradhin we discover arba ‘four’, upra ‘earth’ corresponding to Syriac arb an effective and you will afra. From inside the Hertevin as well as in Zakho, passed on is actually frequently ?: Hertevin thus?an excellent ‘seven’ (Jastrow 1988, 99), Zakho sme?la ‘she heard’ (Meehan and you may Alon 1979, 189). In lots of most other languages most are kept as ?, and you can, regarding other people, is fully gone totally. Particular languages have reintroduced lent off Arabic otherwise Kurdish. Such as for example, Halabja provides ayza ‘good’.
(4) In prior to dialects regarding Aramaic, as with Tiberian Hebrew, t turned [Theta] immediately after an excellent vowel. Which alternation might have been lexicalized inside NENA, with often t otherwise [Theta] spread courtesy entire paradigms, whether or not preceded of the a good vowel or not. Particularly, inside Aradhin the newest verb ‘come’ now has [Theta] throughout: a[Theta]ya ‘it (fem.) comes’, but also [Theta]e:la ‘she came’ (Krotkoff 1982, 70, 74). Then, in a number of dialects new phoneme [Theta] enjoys gone through more changes. In certain languages [Theta] features merged back into t, and also in other people it is s if not l.(7) In one single dialect, Jilu, it has become h and become deleted but within beginning of a word. The 3 easternmost Jewish languages share the latest alarming change out of [Theta] to 1. The outcomes ones changes is seen throughout the term ‘house’ hence looks in various dialects because end up being:[Theta]an excellent (Tkhuma), biya (Jilu), beta (Hertevin), bela (Halabja), and you may besa (Sanandaj Christian).